Jean-Marc Ghigo is a Professor in Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, where he studies how commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli operate within biofilms. Using molecular microbiology combined with in vitro and in vivo models, his team identified several adhesins involved in surface contacts and bacteria-bacteria interactions. They characterized biofilm-associated molecules accumulating within biofilms and investigated biofilm tolerance to antimicrobials and bacterial interferences in mixed communities. The laboratory also collaborates with physico-chemists to study biophysical aspects of bacterial interactions with surfaces, and with clinician partners to evaluate preventive and conservative approaches to control pathogenic biofilms. (see also: https:,,research.pasteur.fr,en,team,genetics-of-biofilms,). Current research axes of the laboratory continue to investigate under-explored aspects of the biofilm lifestyle in projects at the interface between fundamental and clinical research.