Delft and C B van Niel Slide Show

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The Delft School in America:
The Contributions of C. B. van Niel (1897-1985)

 van Niel

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History of Microbiology at ASM Microbe 2016

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The Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives (CHOMA) Committee is pleased to announce its schedule of ASM MICROBE 2016 meeting events:

 

ASM MICROBE 2016
Boston, MA
June 16-20, 2016

 

For more information on CHOMA programs and activities, contact ASM Archivist at    jkarr@asmusa.org   OR  archives@asmusa.org

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Annual History of Microbiology Lecture 2016

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Annual History of Microbiology Lecture

 

Title:                Alexander Fleming and the Beginnings of Biofilm Research

Lecturer:         Michael J. Hanophy

                        St. Joseph's College, Brooklyn, NY

 

Date:               Saturday, June 18, 2016

Time:              2:45 pm – 3:45 pm

 

Location:         Boston Convention & Exhibition Center (BCEC); Meeting Room 257A

 

Conveners:      James A. Poupard; Chair, Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives

                        Douglas E. Eveleigh; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

 

Lecture Description:   

The 2016 History of Microbiology Lecture discusses the early work of Alexander Fleming on wound infections and what we would now call biofilm research. The history of bacteriology had been, in many ways, a history of the study of pure culture until significant research into the area of biofilms began in earnest in the 1990s. However, although the term “biofilm” did not appear in a publication until as late as 1977, the study of microbial communities attached to surfaces goes back to the earliest days of microbiology. Van Leeuwenhoek himself noted the abundance and diversity of microbes in dental plaque, while research in the 1940s by Heukelekian and Heller was among the first studies to note real differences between growth in a film and planktonic growth. Some of the earliest work on biofilms, particularly medically significant biofilms, was actually carried out by a young Alexander Fleming, long before his Nobel prize-winning work on penicillin. A review of the literature shows that Fleming authored or co-authored ten papers between 1914 and 1920 specifically on the mechanisms and treatment of infection. Among these papers are studies of the mixed flora found on soldiers’ uniforms and in different types of wounds and reports on innovative techniques that Fleming developed that allowed him to study biofilm populations. As a result of this work, Alexander Fleming was among the first to extensively characterize the diverse populations in biofilms and to recognize that organisms in a biofilm are often much more resistant to antimicrobial compounds than organisms growing planktonically. The Annual History of Microbiology Lecture is sponsored each year by the Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives (CHOMA) to present topics in the history of microbiology and show how they have impacted and continue to influence the field of microbiology. The Lectures demonstrate that history is a critical factor for understanding the current and future directions of the science.

ASM MICROBE 2016

Boston, MA

June 16-20, 2016

http://asmmicrobe.org/

 

For more information on CHOMA programs and activities, contact ASM Archivist at    jkarr@asmusa.org    OR  archives@asmusa.org

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History Exhibit 2016

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History of Microbiology Exhibit - Two-part Exhibit:  Significant Events in Microbiology and the Founding of Journal of Bacteriology, 1916

Visit the History of Microbiology Exhibit to view images and documents from the Center for the History of Microbiology/ASM Archives collection and interact with the ASM Archivist!

Location: Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, Level 1 Northwest Lobby A

ASM MICROBE 2016

Boston, MA

June 16-20, 2016

http://asmmicrobe.org/

 

For more information, contact ASM Archivist at    jkarr@asmusa.org    OR  archives@asmusa.org

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Ocean Station ALOHA, University of Hawai'i at Manoa Designated as a Milestones in Microbiology Site

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  The American Society for Microbiology

Announces its Designation of the

 

Ocean Station ALOHA, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

 

as a Milestones in Microbiology site  

 

The ASM Milestones in Microbiology program recognizes institutions and the scientists who worked there

that have made significant contributions toward advancing the science of microbiology. 

 

OS ALOHA Milestones Plaque

(L-R) Alexander Shor, Associate Dean for Research, UH School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology; Tim Donohue, ASM Past President; Rita Colwell, ASM Past President; David Karl, Co-Founder of the HOT program that established Ocean Station ALOHA, and Co-Founder and Co-Director of C-MORE and SCOPE; Matthew Church, Professor and Senior Researcher, C-MORE and current lead PI of the HOT program; Doug Eveleigh, Chair of Milestones in Microbiology; Ed Delong, Co-Director and Co-Founder of C-MORE and SCOPE with the Milestones Plaque

 

To view videos of the Milestones ceremony and Pavel Lecture Held prior to the ceremony, go to http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/


To access a 30-minute video (produced by Jay Fidell of “Think Tech Hawai’i”) featuring event highlights and interviews go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iprHO5wrf1A

 

Milestones Recognition

The Milestones in Microbiology designation is made in recognition of the historic and visionary contributions of Ocean Station ALOHA to the science of microbial oceanography.   

 

Milestones Site Dedication Ceremony

The plaque that will mark the site as a Milestone in Microbiology was unveiled on November 17, 2015, in a ceremony held in conjunction with the inaugural lecture in the “Waypoints in Microbial Oceanography” Distinguished Lecturer Series.  The Pavel lecture, “Climate, Oceans, and Human Health: The Cholera Chronicle,” was presented by Rita Colwell, former director of the National Science Foundation and former ASM president, who commented, “Ocean science can no longer be viewed as an esoteric, ‘offshore’ discipline.  It is mainland and mainstream. The health and bounty of our oceans are an issue of planetary survival.”

The Milestones plaque was presented by Tim Donohue, ASM past president, to Alexander Shor, Associate Dean for Research, UH School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, David Karl, Co-Founder of the HOT program that established Ocean Station ALOHA, and Co-Founder and Co-Director of C-MORE and SCOPE, Edward DeLong, Co-Director and Co-Founder of C-MORE and SCOPE, and Matthew Church, Professor and Senior Researcher, C-MORE and current lead PI of the HOT program.  “This open-ocean research station has played a key role in defining the discipline of microbial oceanography and educating the public about the vital role of marine microbes in global ecosystems,” said Donohue.  “It is my opinion that we are in a renaissance period for microbiology, a time where we are poised to gain new insight into the myriad of ways in which microbes impact the world that we inhabit and will pass on to future generations.  We can look to Ocean Station ALOHA for examples of how to explain the science that excites us and its potential to solve problems relevant to society today and in the future.” 

The Milestones event was well attended by faculty, students, ASM Hawai‘i Branch members, university leaders, including David Lassner, President of the University of Hawai‘i System and Donna Vuchinich, President and CEO of the University of Hawai‘i Foundation, and ASM guests, including Doug Eveleigh, chair of Milestones, and John Meyers, Membership Services Director.  Other highlights of the Milestones celebration and Pavel Lecture were a seminar, “The Science of Ocean Station ALOHA” delivered by David Karl, Edward DeLong, and Matthew Church, a tour of C-More Hale, and a viewing of the award-winning film, “The Invisible Seas” which was produced in the 1970s by Rita Colwell.  

 

Milestones Plaque: 

 Plaque-Staion ALOHA Hawaii-FINAL-in White

 First-Day Cover Issued by U.S. Postal Service in Honor of the Milestones Designation:

  First-Day Cover COPY Issued Post Milestones

 

 

Historical Background and Perspective

 

Overview: 

Ocean Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment), the microbiological research site 100 km north of O'ahu, Hawai'i, has played a fundamental role in defining the discipline of microbial oceanography, developing a comprehensive understanding of the sea, and educating the public about the critical role of marine microbes in global ecosystems.  In light of the pioneering research conducted there over the past three decades,  Station ALOHA may be viewed as the “birthplace” of microbial oceanography. Important scientific breakthroughs, including the discovery of new microorganisms, new metabolic pathways, and new understanding of the environmental controls of microbial rates and processes at a site representative of the North Pacific Subtropical gyre – Earth’s largest biome – justify the recognition of Station ALOHA as an important proving ground in microbial ecology.

 

In the 1960s, the field of marine microbiology gained prominence as an important sub-discipline of microbiology, including systematic laboratory-based studies of the structure and physiology of marine bacteria, unicellular algae, and protozoa, with a focus on the metabolic effects of salt, temperature, pressure, and later on nutrient uptake kinetics and controls. These important – mostly pure culture – studies laid the foundation for subsequent investigations of the ecological role of microorganisms in the sea. Later that decade, culture-independent methods were devised to enumerate marine bacteria using epifluorescence microscopy, and the results documented much larger populations than had been reported using selective, plate count methodologies.  Furthermore, the use of radiolabeled organic substrates provided novel methods for the determination of heterotrophic bacterial community dynamics and growth. These methods contributed to a new era of quantitative marine microbial ecology, and to the eventual founding of microbial oceanography as a new approach to the study of microorganisms in marine ecosystems. While there is overlap in mission, the main difference between the sub-disciplines of marine microbiology and microbial oceanography is whether the focus of the study is the microbe itself or the roles and interactions of microbes within naturally occurring communities. This sometimes subtle distinction is analogous to the complementary sub-disciplines of marine biology and biological oceanography. It is possible to study marine microbiology anywhere in the world using pure culture isolates; microbial oceanography can only be done at sea – by analyzing the complex inter-relationships between and among microorganisms and their environment. In this way, studies at Station ALOHA can be viewed as the marine equivalent of an agricultural field station where observations of microorganisms can be made and experiments conducted.

 

While the new field of microbiological/microbial oceanography was emerging as an extension of marine microbiology, scientists at the University of Hawaii proposed a new program – the “Hawaii Ocean Experiment” – or HOE (hoe is a Hawaiian word meaning “to paddle” or “to work together”). This project was not initially funded, but it was later reconfigured as the Hawaii Ocean Timeseries (HOT) research program. When HOT was created in October 1988, Station ALOHA was selected as the deep ocean site that was representative of the vast North Pacific Subtropical Gyre – one of Earth’s largest biomes. It soon became a transdisciplinary collaboration among individuals who traditionally did not interact (microbiologists, physical scientists, oceanographers, mathematicians, and educators), and created unique opportunities for scientific discovery, knowledge transfer, and outreach to society at large. In 2006, the scope of the HOT program was enhanced with the creation of a new NSF-supported Science and Technology Center (STC), the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE). This multi-institutional collaboration was established to investigate the identities, roles, and impacts of microorganisms including their potential responses to global environmental variability and climate change. In addition to this important, basic research mission, C-MORE had an important education mission: to train a new breed of inter-disciplinary microbial oceanographers, to develop curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and to increase the number of students and teachers engaged in quantitative sciences and engineering, focusing on underrepresented groups, especially Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. In July 2014, a third collaborative research program, Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology (SCOPE), was created to complement the objectives of HOT and C-MORE, and to specifically investigate microbially-mediated processes that govern the flow of matter and energy at Station ALOHA with a greater temporal and spatial resolution.

 

When the HOT program began, momentum was building towards the development of a new, quantitative understanding of marine microbial assemblages, their control of biogeochemical cycles, and the sensitivities of microbially-mediated processes to climate change. The fundamental underpinning of this pioneering research effort was to determine environmental (physical and chemical) influences on the abundance, diversity, structure, and population dynamics of the dominant life forms in the sea – microorganisms. Long-term, time-series studies such as those conducted at Station ALOHA are ideally suited for investigating subtle habitat change, irregularly spaced stochastic forcing events, and complex interdependent ecological phenomena that affect microbial biogeochemical processes in nature. Because most naturally occurring microbes were not in pure culture at that time (and many still are not), taxonomic identities, evolutionary histories, and metabolic characteristics and controls were lacking. The key role(s) of viruses and the ubiquity of fundamental microbe-microbe interactions were largely unexplored.  For example, the three major groups of microorganisms that are now known to be numerically dominant members of the Station ALOHA ecosystem (and other open ocean ecosystems) were not even known at the beginning of the study. These microorganisms include: (1) Prochlorococcus spp., a novel oxygenic cyanobacterium which is now recognized as the most abundant photolithoautotroph on the planet. Prochlorococcus was first identified by its unique pigment-based flow cytometric signature (red fluorescence at 660-700 nm when excited by blue light at 488 nm). Prochlorococcus has unique pigmentation and a streamlined genome and exhibits enormous phenotypic and physiological variability, believed to be a result of genetic microadaptation; (2) SAR11 clade of alphaproteobacteria, the most abundant chemoorganoheterotrophic bacterium in the sea, first identified by 16S rRNA shotgun gene cloning and sequencing. SAR11 also has a streamlined genome and exhibits extensive ecotypic differentiation among related lineages; and (3) planktonic archaea, previously thought to be relegated to “extreme” (high temperature, low oxygen, high salt) environments, also discovered by rRNA sequence analysis. In addition to these numerically-abundant novel microorganisms, research conducted at Station ALOHA has discovered several unicellular, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial groups, one of which exhibits a unique mutualistic, symbiotic association with a eukaryotic alga. Furthermore, research conducted at Station ALOHA has discovered, or contributed to the understanding of, several metabolic pathways, including proteorhodopsin-based phototrophy via a novel light-driven proton pump and the aerobic production of methane via methylphosphonate metabolism. 

 

Research at Station ALOHA is ongoing. 

 

Scientists Behind the Contributions:

The importance of field research conducted at this site, and its relevance to the discipline of microbial oceanography has attracted a very large contingent of outstanding microbiologists who have worked collaboratively for a common purpose. Many distinguished microbiologists have already contributed significantly to the Station ALOHA research portfolio as members of the HOT, C-MORE, or SCOPE research teams: 

 

Sallie W. (Penny) Chisholm - American Academy for Microbiology fellow Sallie W. (Penny) Chisholm, the discoverer of Prochlorococcus, has been a major contributor in all three programs and a co-PI of the C-MORE program. Penny is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and was awarded the Medal of Science by President Barack Obama. She has also received numerous awards, based partly on her work at Station ALOHA, including the Alexander Agassiz Medal (National Academy of Sciences) and the A. G. Huntsman Medal (Royal Society of Canada).

 

Edward F. DeLong - Professor Edward F. DeLong, also an American Academy for Microbiology Fellow and member of the National Academy of Sciences, is co-founder and co-Director of the C-MORE and SCOPE programs. Ed has received numerous international awards including the prestigious A. G. Huntsman Medal (Royal Society of Canada), the DuPont Award in Applied and Environmental Microbiology from the American Society for Microbiology, and the ASM’s David C. White award for outstanding mentoring. DeLong also served on the American Academy for Microbiology Board of Governors.

 

David Karl - David Karl is the co-founder of the HOT program that established Station ALOHA, and co-founder and co-Director of C-MORE and SCOPE (both with DeLong). He is also a Fellow of the American Academy for Microbiology and member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has received numerous awards for his research at Station ALOHA including the Alexander Agassiz Medal (National Academy of Sciences) and the A. G. Huntsman Medal (Royal Society of Canada), and is the 2015 recipient of the ASM’s DuPont Award in Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

 

Others - In addition to Chisholm, DeLong, and Karl, other American Academy for Microbiology Fellows involved in the C-MORE/SCOPE efforts at Station ALOHA include John Waterbury, Mick Follows, Jonathan Zehr, and Virginia Armbrust.

 

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 

 

Any questions? Contact the ASM Archivist at jkarr@asmusa.org 

  

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CHOMA Symposium 2016

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CHOMA Symposium

 

Title:                Foundations to Frontiers: The Molecular Revolution

Date:               Sunday, June 19, 2016

Time:               2:45 pm – 5:15 pm

 

Location:         Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel; Grand Ballroom B

 

Conveners:      Joan W. Bennett; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

                        Lin-Jun MA; University of Massachusetts, Amherst

 

Symposium Description:         

Every branch of the microbial sciences and clinical medicine has been transformed by our ability to exploit scientific insights into the molecular workings of life. This section will invite FIVE distinguished scientists who have made significant contributions to recent biology, including molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, and gene editing. Hearing stories from these scientists directly regarding why they chose their career paths, how they made their discoveries, and what they think about the economic, ethical and social implications of their research, will be extremely valuable for the next generation microbiologists. 

Speakers/Topics:    

 

  • The Ignition of BLAST
    • Stephen Altschul; NIH, Bethesda, MD

 

  • From the Lac Operon to Science and Social Justice Teaching
    • Jonathan Beckwith; Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA

 

  • Microbial Genomics: The Early Years
    • Claire M. Fraser; University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD

 

  • Origins of Genomics and Semi-synthetic Genes
    • Joachim Messing; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ

 

  • Following Carl Woese into the Natural Microbial World: The Beginnings of Metagenomics
    • Norman R. Pace; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO
 
ASM MICROBE 2016
Boston, MA
June 16-20, 2016

 

For more information on CHOMA programs and activities, contact ASM Archivist at    jkarr@asmusa.org    OR  archives@asmusa.org

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