The EPA’s mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the environment. The ASM believes that sound public policy for environmental protection depends on adequately funded programs of intramural and extramural research based on scientific peer review to assure that support is awarded to research that has both quality and relevance. The nation spends comparatively little on environmental research, even though health and the environment are often integrally related. It is essential that the EPA’s Science to Achieve Results Research (STAR) program and Indoor Air Quality research, Clean and Safe Water research, and Surface Water Protection and Drinking Water research programs be adequately funded in the EPA budget.
Because of the importance of science and technology in addressing increasingly complex environmental problems, ASM urges Congress to provide increased funding for EPA science and technology programs. EPA depends on excellent research programs to evaluate risk, develop and defend protective standards, anticipate future health and environmental threats, and to identify solutions to environmental problems.
STAR Grants Program
EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) manages the STAR grants program, which is a competitive, peer-reviewed, extramural research grants program intended to increase access to the nation’s best scientists and engineers in academic and other nonprofit research institutions. Research sponsored by the STAR program allows the EPA to fill information gaps that are not addressed completely by its intramural research programs, and to respond to new and emerging issues that the agency’s laboratories are not able to address.
The EPA budget requests $65 million, a $35 million cut in funding, for the STAR grants program from FY 2005. This cut includes a decrease in the exploratory research grants. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has urged the continuation of and investment in the STAR program. In 2003, the NAS released a report titled, The Measure of STAR: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Research Grants Program, which argues that the STAR grants are a critical means for the agency to access scientific expertise that it does not have in-house, and to respond quickly to emerging issues.
Since its inception in 1995, STAR research projects have resulted in articles in highly respected, peer-reviewed journals, and have already helped to improve our understanding of the causes, exposures and effects of environmental pollution and microorganisms in the environment. ASM urges Congress to fully restore funding for the STAR grants program to the FY 2004 level of $100 million. At present, STAR focuses on critical research areas, including the health effects of particulate matter, drinking water, water quality, global change, ecosystem assessment and restoration, human health risk assessment, endocrine disrupting chemicals, pollution prevention and new technologies, children’s health, and socio-economic research.
A typical STAR grant is funded at approximately $500,000, over the course of three years. With the proposed budget request, approximately 70 fewer individual research projects will be awarded. The proposed 35% cut in funding for the STAR program would:
- Eliminate 50 grants in FY 2005 across all areas of the ecological research program.
- Redirect $5 million from research to a pollution prevention outreach program in another part of the EPA. Redirecting these funds would eliminate $3 million in STAR funding, which is EPA’s contribution to the EPA-National Science Foundation (NSF) partnership.
- Cut $4.9 million, which would eliminate the entire STAR grant research program on endocrine disruptors. The funds would otherwise have supported research on the extent to which humans and wildlife are exposed to endocrine disruptors, an area that the NAS and the World Health Organization have identified as an important research gap.
- Eliminate STAR research in FY 2005 on how and where mercury moves through the environment.
Eliminate ORD’s contribution to the five EPA established, university-based centers affiliated with 22 universities to address concerns about hazardous substances in the environment.
Although the American public enjoys safe drinking water, waterborne disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites continue to be reported. Surface water and groundwater sources can be contaminated with many different types of chemical substances and microorganisms. Furthermore, the disinfection process itself creates a number of potentially toxic chemical byproducts. EPA conducts the necessary research to provide a strong scientific foundation for standards that limit the public’s exposure to drinking water contaminants and disinfection byproducts. This research supports major regulatory activities including the Microbial/Disinfection Byproduct Rules, and future decisions on unregulated pathogens and chemicals. EPA has drinking water regulations for more than 90 contaminants. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) includes a process for identifying new which are reported in a Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The first CCL was published in March 1998. EPA uses this list of unregulated contaminants to prioritize research and data collection efforts to help EPA in determining whether a specific contaminant should be regulated.
In addition to releasing the most recent CCL in February 2005, EPA provided an update on its work to improve the CCL process for the future that is based, in part, on recommendations from the National Research Council and the National Drinking Water Advisory Council. Goals for the future include:
- evaluate a wider range of information;
- screen contaminants more systematically; and
- develop a more comprehensive CCL by expanding the number of contaminants being reviewed for inclusion on the next CCL.
EPA is currently working on the third CCL and anticipates its draft release in 2006. The increasing numbers of contaminants and candidate contaminants that must be monitored and regulated require adequate funding. Research focuses on filling data gaps, developing analytical methods for measuring the occurrence of chemical and microbial contaminants on the CCL and developing and evaluating cost-effective treatment technologies for removing pathogens from water supplies while minimizing microbial/disinfection by-product formation.
Under the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 (BEACH Act), the EPA protects the quality of the nation’s coastal and Great Lakes region recreational water. Swimming in some recreational waters can pose a risk of illness as a result of exposure to microbial pathogens. EPA’s safety improvement strategy includes the general reduction of pathogen levels in recreational waters by:
- reducing pollution from Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs);
- addressing major sources discharging pathogens under the permit program; and
- improving management of septic systems.
EPA is conducting research on waterborne pathogens, arsenic, disinfection byproducts, and other chemical contaminants to protect the nation. An increase in research funding is needed to ensure our safety and health, and protect the environment.
Indoor Air Quality
Every breath we take, indoors and out, we inhale not just life-sustaining oxygen but dust and smoke, chemicals, microorganisms, and particles and pollutants that float on the air. The average human inhales approximately 10 cubic meters of air daily. Because most people spend about 22 hours each day indoors, poor indoor air quality (IAQ) affects both public health and national productivity. At present, a shortage of IAQ research leaves much unknown about cause-and-effect specifics, but there is little doubt that contaminated buildings are attracting more attention as occupants develop often vague symptoms followed by remediation, litigation, and other costly outcomes.
Although IAQ issues are often viewed as a problem of modern buildings, connections made between air and disease date to ancient times. Long before the germ theory of disease and its indictment of pathogenic microorganisms, humans associated foul miasmas like “sewer gas” with infectious diseases such as malaria. Initially, prevention of disease transmission by infectious pathogens became the principal concern of early public health advocates. Today we understand that airborne non-pathogenic organisms, fragments of microbial cells, and by-products of microbial metabolism also cause problems. ASM believes that more research is needed in this area for the safety and protection of human health.
Well-funded research is needed to address emerging issues affecting the environment and human health. For EPA to fulfill its mission to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment, ASM urges Congress to increase funding for the EPA’s science and technology programs in FY 2006.
The ASM appreciates the opportunity to provide written testimony and would be pleased to assist the Subcommittee as it considers its appropriation for the EPA for FY 2006.