Dr. Subbarao’s research is focused on newly emerging viral diseases of global importance: pandemic influenza and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The goal of the research program is to develop vaccines; this bench-to-clinic program includes investigations that range from pathogenesis to applied vaccinology. The influenza program addresses questions of viral antigenicity including evaluation of genetic and antigenic relatedness and cross-protection between animal influenza viruses, pathogenesis, host responses, and vaccine development. Pathogenesis and host responses to vaccines and immunoprophylaxis strategies are evaluated in animal models. Preclinical and clinical evaluations are undertaken for vaccines generated from viruses with site-specific mutations generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics.