Articles Related to Biological Warfare

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  • Abramova, F. A., et al. "Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979." Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences 90:2291-2294, 1993
  • Adams, C. "Pentagon planning biological war games. " Washington Post July 28, 1988
  • Adelman, Kenneth. "Chemical weapons: Restoring the taboo." Orbis, Fall, 1986
  • Advertisement. "Scientologists expose germ warfare testing on American citizens." Washington Post? 1984?
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare on rabbits." North American Veterinarian 35:291, 1954
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare." Life 31:7, 43-49, 1951
  • Anonymous. "Biological warfare: Off limits to doctors." Medical World News, July 25, 1969
  • Anonymous. "Japanese use the Chinese as Guinea pigs to test germ warfare." RockyMountain Medical Journal 39:571-72, 1942
  • Anonymous. "Red germ-warfare accusations: Investigations from afar, bad grammar." Newsweek, 41:22-23, 1953
  • Anonymous. "Report says Japan used poison gas." Gazette Telegraph Sept. 18, 1988
  • Anonymous. "The talk of the town." The New Yorker March 16, 1987, 27-28
  • Anonymous. "Vaccinia infection." MMWR 31:50, 683 (1982)
  • Appel, J. G. "The risk factor in shaping U. S. defense policy." Army. Sept. 1985
  • Asinof, R. "Averting genetic warfare." Environmental Action, June 1984

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  • Barss, P. "Epidemic field investigation as applied to allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Barss, P. "Investigating allegations of chemical, biological, or toxin warfare: A response to five expert commentaries." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Bernhard, R. "Biological warfare: The deadly aerosol." Scientific Research, Jan. 22, 1968
  • Bernstein, B. J. "Churchill's secret biological weapons." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43:46-50, 1981
  • Bernstein, B. J. "The birth of the U. S. biological warfare program." Scientific American 256:6, 1987
  • Beyer, Lisa. "Coping with chemicals." Time, February 25, 1991
  • Boyle, F. A. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Broad, W. "How Japan germ terror alerted the world." New York Times May 26, 1998
  • Broad, W., and J. Miller. "Scientist at work: Bill Patrick. Once he devised germ weapons; now he defends against them." New York Times, Nov. 3, 1998
  • Brooks, F. R., and D. G. Ebner. "Psychological reactions during chemical warfare training." Military Medicine 148:232-235, 1983
  • Buckley, S. "Comment on Deforest and Zilinskas." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990

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  • Carter, B. J., and M. Cammermeyer. "Human responses to simulated chemical warfare training in U. S. Army Reserve personnel." Military Medicine 154:6, 1989
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Chevrier, M. I. "The Biological Weapons Convention: The Third Review Conference." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Verifying the unverifiable: Lessons from the Biological Weapons Convention." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Chevrier, M. I. "Weapons of war or ravages of nature? Investigating the use of CBW." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Chevrier, M. I., and J. E. Stern. "Chemical and biological weapons in the Third World." Boston College Third World Law Review 11:45, 1991
  • Ciegler, A. "Mycotoxins: A new class of chemical weapons." NBC Defense andTechnology International 1:2, 1986
  • Cole, L. A. "Response to Zilinskas' Review of Clouds of Secrecy." Politics and the Life Sciences 8:1989
  • Colen, B. D. "Pentagon can administer drugs without troops' consent, FDA says." Philadelphia Inquirer, Jan. 8, 1991
  • Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, Ft. Bragg. "Epidemics of Q Fever among the troops returning from Italy in the Spring." American Journal of Hygiene 44:1, 1946
  • Cromartie, W. J., et al. "Studies on infections with Bacillus anthracis. 1. A histopathological study of skin lesions produced by B. anthracis in susceptible and resistant animal species. 2. The immunological and tissue damaging properties of extracts prepared from lesions of B. anthracis infection. 3. Chemical and immunological properties of the protective antigen in crude extracts of skin lesions of B. anthracis 4. Preparation and characterization of an anthracidal substance from various animal tissues." Journal of Infectious Diseases 80:1-52, 1947

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  • Dasey, C. F. "Medical benefits of the biological defense research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Dashiell, T. R. "The need for a defensive biological research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Deforest, P. H. "The matrix of biological disarmament: Strategy, law and technology." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Dick, C. "The Soviet chemical and biological warfare threat." Rusi. Mar. 1, 1981
  • Dixon, B. "Psychobiological warfare." New Scientist 104:40, 1984

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  • EIR Biological Holocaust Task Force. "How Kissinger and Pugwash destroyed U. S. biodefenses: The need for a 'Biological SDI.'" In "An emergency war plan to fight AIDS and other pandemics."EIR [Executive Intelligence Review] Special Report, Feb. 15, 1986
  • Ember, L. R. "Chemical warfare: Build up or disarm?" C&EN, Dec. 15, 1980
  • Evstigneev, V. I. "The contemporary state of vaccinal prevention of natural smallpox in the armed forces of capitalist states." Military Medicine, Nov. 25, 1992

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  • Falk, R. "Dangers to avert." Science 243:552, 1989
  • Falk, R. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Falk, R. A. "Inhibiting reliance on biological weaponry: The role and relevance of international law." American University Journal of International Law and Policy 1:17, 1986
  • Feinsilber, M. "Proof Soviets lied about US warfare." AOL News, Nov. 16, 1998
  • Fothergill, L. D. "Biological warfare and its defense." Military Medicine 123:1, 1958
  • Fox, L. A. "Bacterial warfare." The Military Surgeon 72:3, 1933
  • Freeman, K. "The unfought chemical war." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Dec., 1991
  • Frisina, M. E. "The offensive-defensive distinction in military biological research." Hastings Center Report 20:3, 1990
  • Fullerton, C. S., and R. J. Ursano. "Behavioral and psychological responses to chemical and biological warfare." Military Medicine 155:2, 1990

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  • Gaylin, W. "Fooling with Mother Nature." Hastings Center Report 20:3, 1990
  • Gee, J. "Confessions of an on-site inspector." Pacific Research 4:4, 1991
  • Geissler, E. "Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Comments on the contributions of Marie Isabelle Chevrier and Lynn Marvin Hansen." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Geissler, G. "A global surveillance program might solve several serious problems." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Geissler, G. "Vaccines for peace: An international program of development and use of vaccines against dual-threat agents." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Gibbons, M. "Germ warfare: A chilling possibility." ADVANCE for Medical Laboratory Professionals, Feb. 18, 1991
  • Glasgow, G. "Warfare by germs?" Contemporary Review 181:377-79, 1952
  • Goldblat, J. "Chemical weapons verification." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1985
  • Groot, H. "The reinvasion of Colombia by Aedes aegypti: Aspects to remember." American Journal of Tropical medicine and Hygiene 29:3, 1980
  • Guidry, V. A. "Germ warfare game: Army played to learn what it might be like." Washington Star March 9, 1977
  • Gup, Ted. 'The Smithsonian secret: Why an innocent bird study went straight to biological warfare experts at Ft. Detrick." Washington Post Magazine, May 12, 1985

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  • Haglund, K. "Biology and terrorism: A new alliance?" MD, Jan. 1987
  • Hahn, T. S. "Restocking America's chemical weapons arsenal." University of ToledoLaw Review 13:4, 1982
  • Hammerschlag, R. "Ethnic weapons." Report of Symposium, American Chemical Society Committee on Chemistry and Public Affairs, April 1, 1974
  • Hanes, J. H. "Agent Orange liability of federal contractors." University of Toledo LawReview 13:4, 1982
  • Hansen, L. M. "Biological and toxin weapons: Arms control, stability, and Western security." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Hanson, E. C. "Biotechnology, international law, and the national interest." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Harruff, R. C. "Chemical-biological warfare in Asia." JAMA 250:4, 1983
  • Hartsell, S. E. "Bacteriological warfare." The Torch 23:4, 1950
  • Heggers, J. "Microbial invasion: The major ally of war (Natural biological warfare)." Military Medicine 143:6, 1978
  • Hepler, J. M. "Biological warfare defense. 3. The State Sanitary Engineer's viewpoint." American Journal of Public Health 42:3, 1952
  • Hersh, S. M. "Germs and gas as weapons." The New Republic, June 7, 1969
  • High-Jones, Martin. "Wickham Steed and German biological warfare research." Intelligence and National Security 7:4, 1992
  • Home, R. W., and M. F. Low. "Postwar scientific intelligence missions to Japan." Isis 84:527-537, 1993
  • Hu, H. "Toxic weapons, epidemiology and human rights." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Hu, H., et al. "The use of chemical weapons: conducting an investigation using survey epidemiology." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Hubner, J. "The hidden arms race." Sunday Magazine of the San Jose Mercury, April 15, 1984
  • Huxoll, D. L. "Don't ignore the cow in field investigations of chemical, biological or toxin warfare." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Huxsoll, D. L., et al. "Medicine in defense against biological warfare." JAMA 262:5, 1989

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  • Ichord, R. H. "The deadly threat of Soviet chemical warfare." Readers Digest, Sept., 1979

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  • Jacobson, J. A., and B. H. Rosenberg. "Biological defense research: Charting a safer course." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Johansson, K. R., and D. H. Ferris. "Photography of airborne particles during bacteriological plating operations." Journal of Infectious Diseases 78:238-252, 1946

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  • Kadivar, H., and S. C. Adams. "Treatment of chemical and biological warfare injuries: Insights derived from the 1984 Iraqi attack on Majnoon Island." Military Medicine 156:4, 1991
  • Kalven, J. "Yellow rain: The public evidence." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 38:5, 1982
  • Knudson, G. B. "Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction." Military Medicine 156:4, 1991
  • Knudson, G. B. "Treatment of anthrax in man: History and current concepts." Military Medicine 151:2, 1986
  • Kucewicz, W. "Beyond 'yellow rain:' The threat of Soviet genetic engineering." Wall Street Journal April 23-May 18, 1984

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  • Lang, H. K. ""Biological warfare still an issue." ADVANCE For Medical Professionals 3:41, 1991
  • Lang, W. "The role of international law in preventing military misuse of the biosciences and biotechnology." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Langmuir, A. D. "The potentialities of biological warfare against man: An epidemiological appraisal." Public Health Reports 66:13, 1951
  • Langmuir, A. D., and J. M. Andrews. "Biological warfare defense. 2. The Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable Disease Center." American Journal of Public Health 42:3, 1952
  • Larson, C. A. "Ethnic weapons." Military Review, Nov., 1970
  • Lawrence, K. "The history of U. S. bio-chemical killers." Covert Action 17:5-7, 1982
  • Lederberg, J. "A treaty proposal on germ warfare." Washington Post Sept. 24, 1966
  • Lederberg, J. "Biological warfare and the extinction of man." Stanford M. D. 8:4, 1969
  • Lederberg, J. "Biological warfare: A global threat." American Scientist 59:195-197, 1971
  • Lederberg, J. "Our CBW facilities could help against pestilences." Washington Post March 7, 1970
  • Lederberg, J. "Swift biological advance can be bent to genocide." Washington Post Aug. 17, 1968
  • Lederberg, J. "The control of chemical and biological weapons." Stanford Journal ofInternational Studies 7: Spring, 1972
  • Lederberg, J. Statement to Conference of the Committee on Disarmament: read into Congressional Record Sept. 11, 1970.
  • Leitenberg, M. "Anthrax in Sverdlovsk: New pieces to the puzzle." Arms Control Today 22:3, 1992
  • Leitenberg, M. "Soviet activities related to biological weapons." Arms Control 12:4, 1992 (Note appended to reprint: "despite the date on the journal's cover [i.e., September, 1991], this appeared in April, 1992")
  • Levie, H. S. "Humanitarian restrictions on chemical and biological weapons." Universityof Toledo Law Review 13:4, 1982
  • Levinson, Macha. "Custom-made biological weapons." International Defense Review [citation unclear]
  • Long, M. B. "The inch that can destroy the world." Argosy, Dec. 1956
  • Lundin, S. J. "Global epidemiological surveillance: Of general concern, or a matter for the BWC?" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992

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  • Manchee, R. J., et al. "Bacillus anthracis on Gruinard Island." Nature 294:254-55, 1981
  • Mann, J. "Libyan underground chemical site is reported." Los Angeles Times, March 8, 1991
  • Matossian, M. K. "Did mycotoxins play a role in bubonic plague epidemics?" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29:2, 1986
  • Maykuth, A. "U.N. votes punishment of Iraq." Philadelphia Inquirer, April 4, 1991
  • McFadden, E. J. "The Second Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention: One step forward, many more to go." Stanford Journal of International Law 24:1, 1987
  • McGeorge, H. J. "Bugs, gas and missiles." Defense and Foreign Affairs May/June 1990
  • Merck, G. M. "Biological warfare." Report to the Secretary of War, 1946. (Later published, e.g., in The Military Surgeon, 98:237-42, 1946)
  • Meselson, M. "The Biological Weapons Convention and the Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979." FAS Public Interest Report 41:7, 1988
  • Meselson, M., et al. "Verification of biological and toxin weapons disarmament." [Draft Chapter for Pugwash Study on Verification Issues], 1989
  • Mikulak, R. "Review of the Diplomacy of Biological Disarmament." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Miller, J. "Biological weapons, literally older than Methuselah." New York Times, Sept. 19, 1998
  • Mollaret, H. H. "A contribution to the history of bacterial crime." Medecine et Maladies Infectieuse,1987 (original and translation)
  • Mollaret, H. H. "Heydrich's death: A special case of botulism." Medecine et Maladies Infectieuse, 1986 (original and translation)
  • Mollaret, H. H. "The biological weapon." Historia, N. D. (original and translation.)
  • Morse, S. S. "Epidemiologic surveillance for investigating chemical or biological warfare and for improving human health" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Morton, H. E. "The role of the physician in defense against biological warfare." SouthDakota Journal of Medicine 15:455-58, 1962

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  • Nass, M. "Can biological, toxin and chemical warfare be eliminated?" Politics and the Life Sciences 11:1, 1992
  • Nass, M. "The labyrinth of biological defense." PSR Quarterly 1:1, 1991
  • Nixon, R. M. Statement and subsequent remarks of the President, November 25, 1969
  • Nowicke, J. W., and M. Meselson. "Yellow rain: A palynological analysis." Nature 309:205-6, 1984

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  • Orient, J. M. "Chemical and biological warfare: Should defenses be researched and deployed?" JAMA 262:5, 1989

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  • Pady, S. M., and C. D. Kelly. "Use of silicones in aerobiology." Science 110:187, 1949
  • Parks, M. "Briton: Soviets won't vow not to sell arms to Iraq." Los Angeles Times, March 6, 1991
  • Parks, W. H. "Classification of chemical-biological warfare." University of Toledo LawReview 13:4, 1982
  • Phair, J. J. "The diagnostic laboratory in the civil defense for biological warfare." American Journal of Public Health 44:1, 1954
  • Piel, G. "BW." Life 21:118-30, 1946
  • Pike, R. M. "Laboratory-associated infections: Summary and analysis of 3921 cases." Health Laboratory Science 13:2, 1976
  • Piller, C. "Biological warfare and the new genetic technologies." Science for the People 17:3, 1985
  • Piller, C. "DNA - Key to biological warfare?" The Nation, Dec. 10, 1983
  • Piller, C. "Test site for germ warfare?" The Nation, Mar. 9, 1985
  • Pirages, D. "Galloping biotechnology: A new global malady?" Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Plotkin, S. A. "An epidemic of inhalation anthrax, the first in the twentieth century." American Journal of Medicine 29:6, 1960
  • Poupard, J., et al. "The use of smallpox as a biological weapon in the French and Indian War of 1763." ASM News 55:3, 1989
  • Powell, J. W. "A hidden chapter in history." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37:8, 1981
  • Preston, Richard. "The bioweaponeers." The New Yorker March 9, 1998

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  • Rassweiler, C. "What's so terrible about germ warfare?" [unidentified clipping, Vietnam-era.]
  • Reid, R. D. "Bacteria, bombs and bullets." Monthly Research Report of the Office ofNaval Research, May 1, 1949
  • Riezenstein, P. L. "Chemical and biological weapons: Recent legal developments may prove to be a turning point in arms control." Brooklyn Journal of International Law 12:1, 1985
  • Roling, B. V. A. "A judge's view." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37:8, 1981
  • Rosebury, T., and E. A. Kabat. "Bacterial warfare." Journal of Immunology 56:7-96, 1947
  • Rosebury, T., et al. "Disinfection of cloudes of meningopneumonitis and Psittacosis viruses with triethylene glycol vapor." Journal of Experimental Medicine 85:1, 1947
  • Rosenberg, B. H. "The politics of epidemiological surveillance." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Rosenberg, B. H. "Updating the biological weapons ban." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43:40-43, 1987
  • Rothschild, J. H. "Germs and gas: The weapons nobody dares talk about." Harper'sMagazine 218:1309, 1959
  • Rubbo, S. D. "Chemical and biological warfare: The risks of Australian commitment." National U, May 12, 1969
  • Russell, A. M. "International relations theory, biotechnology and war." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Rutman, R. J. , and H. J. Disch "Commentary of articles by Charles F. Dasey and Thomas R. Dashiell on the biological defense research program." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990

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  • Sapiro, M. E. "Investigating allegations of chemical or biological wafare: The Canadian contribution." The American Journal of International Law 80:678-82, 1986
  • Schechter, D. C. "Unorthodox Warfare." New York State Journal of Medicine, Nov, 1971
  • Seale, J. "AIDS virus infection: Prognosis and transmission." Journal of the RoyalSociety of Medicine 78:613-15, 1985
  • Seeley, T. D., et al. "Yellow Rain." Scientific American 253:3, 1985
  • Sidel, V. W. "Biological weapons research and physicians: Historical and ethical analysis." The PSR Quarterly 1:1, 1991
  • Sidel, V. W. "Weapons of mass destruction: The greatest threat to public health." JAMA 262:5, 1989
  • Smith, J. "Biological warfare developments." Jane's Intelligence Review 3:11, 1991
  • Smith, R. J. "Germ warfare program called safe, necessary." Washington Post May 13, 1988
  • Solf, W.A. "Protection of civilans against the effects of hostilities under customary international law and under Protocol 1." American University Journal of InternationalLaw and Policy 1:117, 1986

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  • Thompson, Mark. "Troops to get vaccines." Philadelphia Inquirer Dec. 29, 1990
  • Tigertt, W. D. "Defensive aspects of biological weapons use." Military Medicine 126:7, 1961
  • Tu, A. T. "Genetic engineering: Taking the bite out of snake venoms." NBC Defense andTechnology International 1:2, 1986
  • Tu, A. T. "Snake neurotoxins and necrotic toxins: Potential new agents." NBC Defenseand Technology International 1:2, 1986
  • Tucker, J. B. "Gene Wars." Foreign Policy, Winter 1984-1985

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  • Ursano, R. J. "Combat stress in the chemical and biological warfare environment." Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 59:12, 1988

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  • Van Courtland Moon, J. E "Pressing the limits: The challenge of the Hebrew Committee of National Liberation to chemical warfare policy." Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual 2:139-47, 1985
  • Van Courtland Moon, J. E. "Chemical weapons and deterrence: The World War II Experience" International Security 8:4, 1984
  • Van Ginneken, J. "Bacteriological warfare." Journal of Contemporary Asia 7:130-152, 1977

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  • Wade, N. "Death at Sverdlovsk: A critical diagnosis." Science 209:1501-2, 1980
  • Wedum, A. G. "Defensive aspects of biological warfare in relation to the pharmaceutical industry." Paper presented to American Drug Manufacturer's Association, Homestead, VA, 1955
  • Westing, A. H. "The threat of biological warfare." Bioscience 35:10, 1985
  • Wheelis, M. L. "Strengthening biological weapons control through global epidemiological surveillance." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wheelis, M. L. "The multiple functions of epidemiological surveillance: A response to Geissler, Lundin, Rosenberg and Woodall." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wiener, S. L. "Strategies of biowarfare defense." Military Medicine, 152:1, 1987
  • Wilson, W. "Biological warfare defense. 1. Introductory remarks." American Journal ofPublic Health and the Nation's Health 42:3, 1952
  • Winokur, G. "The germ warfare statements: A synthesis of a method for the extortion of false confessions." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 122:1, 1955
  • Woodall, J. "Preparedness is nine-tenths of prevention." Politics and the Life Sciences 11:2, 1992
  • Wright, S. "New designs for biological weapons." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 43: 1987
  • Wright, S. "The military and the new biology." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1985
  • Wright, S., and R. L. Sinheimer. "Recombinant DNA technology and biological warfare." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 39:9, 1983

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  • Yannacone, V. J., Jr. "Chemical defoliation or chemical warfare?" University of Toledo Law Review 13:4, 1982

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  • Zenova, N. "Urals bacteriological accident suspected in 1979." Literaturnaya Gazeta Aug. 22, 1990 [translated.]
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Anthrax in Sverdlovsk?" Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 39:24-27, 1983
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Recombinant DNA research and the international system." SouthernCalifornia Law Review 51:6, 1978
  • Zilinskas, R. A. "Review of Clouds of Secrecy." Politics and the Life Sciences 7:2, 1989
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Biological warfare and the Third World." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Terrorism and biological weapons: Inevitable alliance?" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 34:1, 1990
  • Zilinskas, R. L. "Transmutation by Cole." Politics and the Life Sciences 9:1, 1990
  • Zoler, M. L. "Biochemical assault: Is there such a thing as preparedness?" Medical WorldNews, Oct. 28, 1985

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