Dr. Crowe is a physician-scientist who has made critical contributions to patient-oriented research through his fundamental work in the fields of vaccine development, molecular immunology of human responses, and virology of important human pathogens. H has succeeded in bringing cutting edge molecular biology tools to the investigation of the responses of humans to viruses and viral vaccines. His laboratory studies fundamental biologic processes, but also translates those findings to practical applications that are of direct benefit to human health. He has made significant contributions to the understanding of the development of childhood defenses against viral diseases and the unique role of antibodies in mucosal immunity to viruses. Jim’s group is also investigating fundamental processes underlying the response of adults to vaccines related to biodefense, such as vaccinia virus, avian influenza, and other emerging infections. His work on isolation of human antibodies to the 1918 influenza virus from pandemic survivors that was published in 2008 in Nature and in 2010 in Science is seminal, representing the longest duration of human immunity ever documented. His laboratory has led the efforts to define the role of the recently discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in pediatric lower respiratory tract disease. Remarkably, Jim and his colleagues have found that hMPV is the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract disease in children, even though the virus was discovered only in 2001.