The Zika ThreatThe infection is suspected of leading to thousands of babies being born with underdeveloped brains.
Dates: 1898 to Cornell; 1902 to Berkeley; 1910 to Philippines; 1919 to USDA
Locations: Assistant in Dairy Bacteriology, College of Agriculture, Cornell and Dairy Bacteriologist to Experiment Station (1898‑1901); Veterinarian, Calif. Experiment Station, Univ. of Calif., (1902‑1906); Assist. Prof. of Bacteriology and Dir. of State Hygienic Laboratory (1906‑1910); Veterinarian and Bacteriologist to the Alameda County Medical Milk Commission; Instructor in Bacteriology at San Francisco Veterinary College; Territorial Veterinarian for Philippine Islands (1910‑1914, 1915‑1919); Dir. Div. of Pathology, Bureau of Animal Industry (1915, 1919); Goshen Laboratories, Goshen, NY (early 1920's); some where in Chicago (early 1920's); Dairy Research Laboratory, Frederick C. Mathews Co., Detroit (mid 1920's);
Training: B.S.A. Cornell 1898; DVM Cornell 1901; under Moore
Fields: dairy; veterinary; milk; poultry pathology
Publications: Moore and Ward, "An Inquiry Concerning the Source of Gas and Taint Producing Bacteria in Cheese Curd," Bull. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. no. 158 (Jan. 1899); "Ropiness in Milk and Cream," Bull. Cornell Agr. Exp. Sta. no. 165 (1899); "The Invasion of the Udder by Bacteria," Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 178 (1900); "Ropiness in Milk and Cream," Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. no. 165 (1900); "Further Observations upon Ropiness in Milk and Cream," Bull. NY Agr. Exp. Sta. no. 195 (1901); with Reed, "The Significance of the Presence of Streptococci in Market Milk," American Medicine (14 Feb. 1903); "Hog Cholera," Cir. Calif. Agr. Exp. Station no. 3 (1903); Ward and Haring, "Bovine Tuberculosis," Bull. California Agr. Exp. Sta. no. 99 (1908); "Fowl Cholera," Bull. Calif. Agr. Exp. Station no. 156 (1904); with Haring, "Bovine Tuberculosis," Bull. Calif. Agricultural Experiment Station no. 199 (1908); Pure Milk and the Public Health (Ithaca: Taylor and Carpenter, 1909); Ward and George S. Baker, "Experiments with the Intradermal Test for Tuberculosis in Cattle," Am. Vet. Rev. 38 (1910): 184; "Bacterium pyognes and its Relation to Suppurative Lesions in Animals," J. of Bact. 2 (1917): 619; with B.A. Gallagher, a textbook on poultry diseases (1917)
SAB Involvement: Charter SAB member; Ward was abstract editor for Comparative Pathology of Abstracts in Bacteriology
Archive Files: "Reminiscences in Dairy Bacteriology," SAB archives, 7‑IIA.9.9; Two scrapbooks containing clippings relating to dairy bacteriology, tuberculosis, etc
At Cornell, Ward was an instructor in dairy bacteriology and researcher in the Agricultural College, while taking classes as a student of V. A. Moore in the Veterinary College. Moore offered that, after a year of general bacteriology, Ward could do advanced work on the problem of the bacterial flora of udders while taking his senior courses. The study involved making cultures from freshly slaughtered dairy cows resulting from tuberculosis work.
At the 1900 meeting of the SAB, Ward presented a paper on "Bacillus lactis viscosus, a Cause of Ropiness in Milk and Cream," which was discussed by Conn. Ward warned that many textbooks mistakenly stated that the organism grew so slowly as to not be a problem in milk. At the same meeting, Reed and Ward presented "Persistence of Streptococci in the Healthy Udder of a Cow." They suggested that healthy cows could harbor the streptococci associated with mammitis in a similar fashion to diphtheria or pneumonia organisms in healthy throats.
Initially worked on poultry diseases, establishing a Poultry Pathology Station in Petaluma. He studied fowl cholera and avian tuberculosis, anthrax, hog cholera, and blackleg. Around 1901, Ward confirmed that B. lactis viscosus was the primary organism responsible for slimy or ropy milk. This organism grew well at low temperatures (45 to 50), and consequently was able to overcome lactic‑acid types in the winter. He also studied, with Moore, the bacterial flora of cows’ udders.
At the 1903 meeting of the SAB, Ward submitted on "Notes upon an Outbreak of Fowl Cholera," but there is no evidence that he actually presented the paper at the meeting. At the 1905 meeting, he outlined "The Quantitative Determination of Leucocytes in Milk," and advocated the Doane‑Buckley method over the Stewart method. The paper was discussed by Prescott, Rickards and Bergey.
Ward returned to the SAB program in 1915, to describe a "Bacterium pyogenes Associated with a Case of Multiple Arthritis in a Hog." At the 1916 meeting, he discussed "Bacillus Pyogenes and its Relation to Suppurative Lesions in Animals." At the 1917 meeting, he discussed "Tests of a Vaccine Prepare for Immunizing Against Bird Pox (Epithelioma Contagiosum) in Fowls." And, while listed at Goshen Laboratories, he presented at the 1921 SAB meeting on "The Etiology of Polyarthritis in Swine."
For the 1923 SAB meeting, Harding and Archibald Ward, both F.C. Mathews employees, discussed the "Thermophilic Bacteria in Composite Samples from Milk Plants."