45th ICAAC Tipsheet: Friday, December 16, 2005


For more information on any presentation at the meeting contact Jim Sliwa, ASM Office of Communications at jsliwa@asmusa.org

Rifaximin Better Than Vancomycin For Treatment of C. difficile Infection
In a comparison study, 75 percent of animals receiving vancomycin for treatment of C. difficile suffered relapse within 21 days of finishing therapy verses no cases of relapse in animals treated with rifaximin.
Efi Kokkotou
BIDMC, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
(Session 5, Paper B-35) (summary available)


New Wound Dressing Effective Antimicrobial Agent
A hydrogel/polyurethane wound dressing appears to be effective at delivering antimicrobial agents to the wound bed.
Lucie Martineau
Defence Research & Development Canada – Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
(Session 5, Paper B-43) (summary available)


Iron Chelation Therapy Effective at Treating Experimental Mucormycosis
Iron chelation therapy is effective at treating experimental mucormycosis in mice and has been administered to more than 7000 patients worldwide.  Further development of this and other novel iron chelators could provide therapy for highly lethal mucormycosis infections.
Ashraf Ibrahim
Los Angeles Biomedical Res. Inst. at Harbor-UCLA Med Ctr., Torrance, CA, United States
(Session 6, Paper B-51) (summary available)



The Role of Incarceration and Public Housing in the Spread of CA-MRSA
A study in Chicago showed that residence in public housing and jail exposure increased  the odds of acquiring community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).
Bala Hota
Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States
(Session 12, Paper L-142)


Cost-Effectiveness and Utility of Influenza Vaccinations Among U.S. Adults
Probability analyses suggest that vaccination against influenza in U.S. adults is likely to be cost-effective from the managed care and societal perspectives.
Matthew Page
MEDTAP Institute at UBC, Bethesda, MD, United States
(Session 14, Paper O-177)


Free-living Amoebae May Harbor Pathogens and Protect Them From Treatment
Bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria, and Listeria can hide inside amoebae and resist chlorine and other biocides.
Gilbert Greub
Univ. of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
(Session 20, Paper 206) (summary available)


Vaccine Reduced Resistance
Although antibacterial resistance in pediatric isolates  S. pneumoniae has decreased overall since the introduction of the childhood vaccine in 2000, resistance continues to increase in strains of pneumococci not covered by the vaccine.
David Farrell
G.R. Mico Ltd, London, United Kingdom
(Session 25, Paper C2-251)


Streptogramin Resistance in Humans Linked to Poultry Exposure
A streptogramin used to promote growth in poultry is also used to treat E. faecium infections in humans.  Researchers believe that consumption of treated poultry may be causing resistance to the antibiotic in humans.
Amy Kieke
Marshfield Clin. Res. Fndn., Marshfield, WI, United States
(Session 26, Paper C2-256)


Impact of CA-MRSA on MRSA Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Hospitals
Compared to traditional hospital-associated MRSA (H-MRSA), CA-MRSA strains appear to be susceptible to a variety of antibiotics including fluoroquinolones but develop resistance once introduced to a hospital setting.
Michael Rybak
Anti-Infective Research Laboratory, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States
(Session 29, Paper C2-284)


New Antibiotic Effective Against Resistant Bacteria
The recently approved antibiotic tigecycline appears to be effective against S. aureus and enterococci strains resistant to 10 currently prescribed antibiotics, inhibiting 100% of all resistant strains tested.
Brian Johnson
IHMA, Inc., Schaumburg, IL, United States
(Session 31, Paper E-334) (summary available)


Atazanavir More Effective at Reducing Risk of Heart Disease in HIV Patients
Atazanavir was found to lower the risk of heart disease in HIV patients by 10 years despite smoking status, diabetes or hypertension.
Effie Gillespie
Univ. of CT/Hartford Hosp., Storrs, CT, United States
(Session 33, Paper H-348) (summary available)


Inter-Hospital Transfers May Contribute to the Spread of MRSA Between Nurseries
Area nurseries are considered to be a reservoir of MRSA and the high rate of inter-hospital baby transfers is believed to facilitate the spread of MRSA.  These concerns are sparking changes in policy regarding admission of MRSA activity and communication among hospitals.
Jay McDonald
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States
(Session 34, Paper K-369)


Patients Infected with MRSA Upon Discharge May Contribute to the Spread of Community Acquired MRSA
Decolonization of patients with H-MRSA following discharge from the hospital is effective at preventing the spread of MRSA in the community given appropriate contact and follow-up with the patient.
Christian Ruef
University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland
(Session 34, Paper K-371)



New Drugs to Treat TB
For the first time in almost 40 years several new drug classes are in clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis.  Researchers are hopeful these new drugs will shorten the duration of therapy and provide for a highly active and improved therapy of the currently multidrug-resistant TB.
Jacques Grosset
Johns Hopkins Univ. Baltimore, MD, United States
(Session 35, Paper 380)


An Experimental Vaccine Shows Promise of Protection Against Avian Influenza
An experimental vaccine provides high level protection against three strains of avian influenza in mice.
William Ernst
Molecular Express, Los Angeles, CA, United States
(Session 40, Paper G-404) (summary available)


Vaccine Against Travelers' Diarrhea
A new oral vaccine against enterotoxigenc E. coli, a common cause of travelers' diarrhea, reduced both the incidence and severity of the disease in travelers to Guatamala and Mexico.
August Bourgeois
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch. of Publ. Hlth., Baltimore, MD, United States
(Session 40, Paper G-408) (summary available)


New Antibiotic Has Broad Spectrum
A study of 7400 clinical isolates finds that the recently approved antibiotic tigecycline has a 95 percent or higher effectiveness rating against all non-pseudomonal bacteria tested.
Jack Johnson
IHMA, Inc., Schaumburg, IL, United States
(Session 45, Paper C2-463) (summary available)


Looking to the Soil for New Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms
Streptomycetes, which evolve in soil ecosystems and synthesize over 50 percent of antibiotics in clinical use, may serve as valuable reservoirs of future antibiotic-resistance mechanisms.  Identifying these mechanisms in the environment may serve as an early warning for future resistance in pathogenic bacteria, giving researchers more time to develop new compounds to overcome new forms of resistance.
Vanessa D'Costa
McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
(Session 45, Paper C2-471) (summary available)


New Antifungal from Common Bacteria
Researchers have identified a protein produced by E. coli bacteria that appears to be a potent inhibitor of the fungal pathogens Aspergillus and Candida.
Oyebisi Jegede
Kent State University, Kent, OH, United States
(Session 46, Paper F-480)


Reducing Fluoroquinolone Use Reduces MRSA
Reducing institutional fluoroquinolone use may be associated with reduced rates of H-MRSA infections.
Karl Madaras-Kelly
Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, United States
(Session 51, Paper K-552) (summary available)


Inhaled Antibiotic for Cystic Fibrosis Patients
A new inhaled antibiotic formulation appears to greatly reduce bacterial load in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
Jane Burns
Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
(Session 52, Paper L-585) (summary available)


Public Harbors Misconceptions about Influenza Vaccine
While 45 percent of people surveyed estimated their risk of getting influenza in the next year at double their actual risk, 72 percent underestimated the ability of the annual influenza vaccine to prevent the illness.  Additionally people harbor misperceptions about the side effects of the vaccine that may play a role in their willingness to be immunized.
Alexander Kallen
VA, White River Junction, VT, United States
(Session 54, Paper V-625) (summary available)


ICAAC Opening Session
The 2005 ICAAC Opening Session, entitled “Global Threats from Viral Diseases” will focus on two pandemics: one existing and one threatening on the horizon.  Kevin De Cock of the Kenya Medical Research Institute will give an update of the HIV pandemic in Africa and Klaus Stöhr of the World Health Organization will discuss the threat of pandemic avian influenza.

Session 55